In signal processing noise can be considered random unwanted data without meaning.

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Equalizing 1/f noise

I am recently acquiring data through ADC on signals ranging from 0.1 Hz to 50 KHz (Fs = 128 KHz). I noticed that apart from the white noise, I have something similar 1/f noise with a cutoff near 1 Hz. ...
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2answers
128 views

How to remove the noise without destroying the main edge?

I am working on a project. I want to segment a logo from a car and the picture's size is 3648*2432. The logo is selected by the red rectangle. I extracted this area and turn into gray level. The ...
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1answer
70 views

Fourier transform possible on non-rectangular part of an image

Dear Signal Processing readers, I want to introduce 'noise' into parts of images. Until now, I worked with rectangluar images for a similar purpose and did the following, using (inverse) Fourier ...
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2answers
50 views

Simulating noise in OFDM

I'd like to simulate a certain $E_s/N_0$ in a baseband OFDM MATLAB modem to generate SER curves. I randomize 50 QAM symbols with $N$ subcarriers each in frequency domain, add null frequencies (guard ...
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3answers
75 views

How to determine SNR from FFT of measured data?

I am doing impedance measurements, where I do a frequency sweep of a test current, and I measure the resulting voltage. Offline, I compute the FFTs of the voltage and current, and I want to make sure ...
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16 views

Estimate Image power spectrum of the noise

I want to implement Wiener filter. I have original image and image blured with linear motion. The one thing I am lack of(to implement it) is Noise power spectrum. I know that it is hard task. I've ...
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5answers
135 views

Improving Digitization by Adding White Noise Before Oversampling

I was reading a physics book and it said that when digitizing a signal white noise was added to improve the process. I don't understand how this works. Therefore my question is: When digitizing an ...
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3answers
58 views

Normalization purpose in signal processing

What is the purpose of normalizing the signal? If we have two signals on hand, how is it used when comparing these two signals?
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1answer
46 views

Frequency of a noisy signal with fixed width pulses

My electricity meter has a front panel LED which pulses in proportional to the current energy rate. The frequency changes but the pulse width is set at 250ms. Due to environmental conditions there's ...
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2answers
50 views

'A priori' and 'a posteriori' SNR

I am reading this paper about speech enhancement using a minimum mean square error short time spectral amplitude estimator for our speech enhancement project. Basically in the paper they mix a clean ...
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1answer
15 views

Expected value of coupled signals is zero

Suppose there are two vector signals, $u$ and $v$, which are functions of time. Given, $E[uv^T]=0$, what is the physical significance of this statement. For clarity, assume $u$ and $v$ are noises in a ...
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14 views

Noisy omni-directinoal UWB radar

I am working with an omni-directional UWB radar and need to make meaningful sense of the data to distinguish objects that could represent an obstacle. It is interfaced and giving me data, but I was ...
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47 views

Improving an auto-correlation based guitar pitch detector

I've seen many questions on this forum regarding pitch detection for musical instruments (commonly guitar), and spent a while reading through the answers to create a basic implementation of ...
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1answer
53 views

What is the rms value of a signal and how to use it

In some papers/books I found infos about a signal given as RMS value. What is the RMS value and what information does it contain? How can I compute it? Moreover, if they say that the signal is a ...
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1answer
58 views

Variance of white noise and the STFT

I hope someone can help me understand the meaning of variance in this case. I am reading an old research paper by Ephraim and Malah (for my DSP project) and it says: Knowing that $D_k$ is the FFT ...
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1answer
40 views

filter design for ECG

I would like to ask how to design a digital filter to remove $50$ Hz interference on an ECG signal. Do I need to use notch filter? Thanks.
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48 views

Generate band limited white noise to be used as excitation in ODE

I am trying to repeat an example I found in a paper. I have to solve this ODE: $25 \ddot{x} + 15 \dot{x} + 330000 x = p(t)$ where $p(t)$ is a white noise sequence band-limited into the 10-25 Hz ...
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52 views

How to calculate SNR of noisy signal?

Say, I have a noisy signal (clean signal + AWGN). When I pass this signal through my noise reduction program, I get the clean signal. My question is how to calculate the SNR before and after passing ...
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0answers
14 views

Wiener filter of two signals of comparable magnitude

Suppose I have two signals, x(t) and y(t) (e.g. from a Lock In amplifier, such that x(t) and y(t) are 90 deg. out of phase). Assume x(t) is the clean signal, s(t), plus background noise, while y(t) is ...
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3answers
177 views

How does averaging increase the Signal to Noise ratio?

When attempting to spot activities on an EEG waveform given a stimuli, it is recommended that several trials be taken and their average is done to increase the SNR. Intuitively, since noise is not ...
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2answers
98 views

How is RMS and Peak-to-peak of white noise calculated

I have seen some devices which specify their internal noise in RMS or Peak-to-peak value. How does one calculate RMS or p2p values for white noise?
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1answer
63 views

Is it possible that adding noise to a signal can increase detection possibility?

I am simulating a feature detector in noisy environment which consist of AWGN Noise and Impulsive Noise. But I am getting a strange result as Signal with Impulsive+AWGN noise has better detection ...
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1answer
59 views

Digital low-pass filters; best practice application

I have time domain strain gauge data from a structure which is subjected to low frequency, random loading. The signal / noise ratio is pretty good, but I would like to try to improve on it as much as ...
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1answer
45 views

Confusion about how to calculate signal to noise ratio(SNR)?

I searched a lot but I didn't find a good answer. According to wikipedia SNR page, SNR can be calculated by both ratio of Power of clean signal to its noise Power either ratio of variance of clean ...
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25 views

Noise Figure And Amplifier Equation

I'm trying to understand how a particular equation works. The scenario is: there is a load of some resistance connected onto an amplifier with some noise figure. The thermal noise of the load alone ...
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0answers
18 views

Derivative of a noisy signal with multiple samples

I am trying to find the best way to get a derivative from the shown signal. It consists of a number measuring positions, which each have been sampled 50 times and then gone to the next point. My ...
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0answers
15 views

Estimating plant parameters from noisy frequecy response data

I have to estimate the parameters of a 1st order transfer function, namely, the coefficients, through experiment. I ran a few experiments and I have a bunch of input-output data vectors. The ...
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0answers
17 views

Unable to reproduce same quality results - Motion (Video) Magnification by MIT

I'm exploring the Eulerian Video Magnification for Revealing Subtle Changes in the World paper and trying to reproduce the same results they obtained, but in my own videos rather than the ones ...
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36 views

comparing different signals

I have some noise measurements and 4 different models that can generate a similar noises using estimated parameters from the real measurements. To compare the estimated noises I calculated the PDF, ...
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0answers
25 views

comparing statistical destributions and non-gaussian noise measeruments

I have some non Gaussian noise measurements and I want to find a statistical model that best represents those measurements. The statistical models that I used for comparison are Middleton Class A , ...
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1answer
61 views

Why use Wavelet Denosing instead of Band pass Filtering

What is the important advantage of adopting a wavelet based denosing scheme such as SURE, SUREshrink, etc. than using approaches involving low pass, high pass, band pass, band reject filter for signal ...
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31 views

How to smooth out a noisy signal?

I've been waiting for an answer to my question here therfore I decided to ask the question in a different way. Could anyone please help me to smooth out the signal below!!. I've no experience of ...
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1answer
35 views

how to detect signal noise

I have data from a power transformer that has a frequency of 60 hz. Sometimes there are faults in the system and causes a large spike in the reading of the transformer. What I want to do is run the ...
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2answers
117 views

Picking out a signal that appears to be noise inside a large signal

I have a signal from a photodiode sensor that has two types of noise. One type of noise is ambient light white noise that gets introduced just from the surrounding environemnt. The other type of noise ...
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1answer
42 views

Phase angle operator, Implemention and drawbacks

Let assume we have a signal as: $\color{blue} {x(t)=M e^{(-\beta.t)} e^{j(\sigma .t+\delta )}}$ By applying phase angle operator we have: $\color{blue} {Phase[x(t)]=Phase[M e^{-\beta.t} e^{j(\sigma ...
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1answer
50 views

How is LMS/FXLMS noise cancelling different than simple polarity inversion?

Consider a noise-cancelling headphone: If I have a noise signal from the outside world, mic it, flip the polarity by multiplying by -1 (with an op-amp or digitally), delay by the appropriate amount, ...
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80 views

why adding noise enhances the accuracy sometimes?

I am applying simple FFT to estimate the frequencies of the oscillations. The real values of frequencies are known to me as I made a synthesis signal for simulation.Thus, I can calculate the error ...
2
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1answer
69 views

why derivative and logarithm operators amplify the noise effects?

It is said, do not use derivative operator in a the control system. because it will amplify the noise effect. Can someone explain it and give some mathematical reference about it please? Also I heard, ...
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511 views

why Gaussian noise is usually used?

Gaussian noise with different SNR levels are usually used in research works to simulate a realistic environment. How can researchers guarantee that Gaussian noise can simulate the reality of a System? ...
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2answers
162 views

what is the unit of SNR?

SNR is defined as: $$SNR=10 \log_{10}\left(\frac{\sigma_s^2}{\sigma_n^2}\right)$$ When we say SNR of 10db is 10 times higher that 20db, it is higher in what? amplitude, power or what? also tell me ...
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3answers
86 views

comb filter - attenuation

I have a signal and from 'standard information' I know the predominant frequency is at 1Hz and then there should be three harmonics at lower amplitudes. My signal however has a lower amplitude at 1Hz, ...
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1answer
67 views

Fixed SNR with unitary noise variance

I've just one question : How can I write a model like y = x + w,( with w a white gaussian noise) with a fixed SNR and a noise variance equal to 1. What coefficient may I have before x ? Thanks !
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0answers
156 views

How to estimate PSD, and time delay of a random signal?

I'm trying to estimate the power spectrum and time delay for random signals. the signals were taken from two sensors, 10 cm apart. My aim is to estimate the PSD first then estimate the time delay in ...
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1answer
72 views

Effect of noise and entropy

Relation of Entropy and SNR : Based on this question and answer, I had another question that struck me and I am curious to know, if somebody can shed some light, on the following situation: $y= ...
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1answer
82 views

white noise filtering

If I have a white noise fed into a filter what would be the output of the filter - what would you expect to see? I know that white noise has a unit power spectral density (PSD), how these thing relate ...
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1answer
54 views

Long burst of high amplitude noise removal

I have a setup with an embedded DSPIC. This is used to link multiple audio inputs to the outputs and changed between them either when told to, or when one is active. This changing takes place on a ...
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1answer
165 views

How to simulate AWGN in communication systems for specific bandwidth

I am trying to generate a AWGN waveform to add it to the signal of my simulated communication system. The operating bandwidth of the communication system is about ...
2
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0answers
62 views

Noise analysis with periodogram. problem with different resolutions

I don't understand what happened in my simulation. I would like to perform a trade off between 2 ways to estimate power in frequency bands. I want to detect spurious frequencies. First method: I ...
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1answer
60 views

What is best practice to remove static noise?

What is best practice/algorithms to remove static noise from speech ? static noise aka Stationary Signal/static noise due to 1.humming sound due to of telephonic line/channel, 2.moving Vehicle,or ...
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100 views

Autocorrelation of white noise

Autocorrelation of white noise should have a strong peak at '0' and absolutely zero for all other $\tau according to this. Then why is output of this code a cone shape(with the expected 'strong peak' ...