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I'm on histogram equalization process. I have quite well understood the math but i don't understand why an histogram on bimodal image fails in image enhancement and what techniques can be used in this case (some kind of local/adaptive histogram?).

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Yes it is true. A simple histogram equalization may fail for certain image intensity distributions. In your case there are some bins with excessive number of pixels. For other methods, try for example gamma and contrast corrections.

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