I've been reading some papers in the context of super resolution in imaging and video (for example works by Michal Irani ,  and so forth), and was wondering if a similar idea can be applied with improving the temporal resolution of waveforms. In other words, if there are multiple recorders that are deterministically delayed from one another, will I be able to super-resolve in time a waveform? was this done?
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Broadly similar techniques are used in a variety of applications when it's necessary to capture more samples of an event than is possible with available equipment. The idea is really quite simple: an interpolation is just "stretching" but it does not provide any new data, which is why interpolation requires a low pass filter. By contrast, if you add another recorder (AD converter) at a fixed delay (usually by setting up another record that is trigger by a phase shifted version of the master clock), then you are "subsampling" the analog data.
You can improve temporal resolution by using multiple ADs at phase shifts, capturing the same analog signal. You can improve spatial resolution using multiple transducers. You can do both at the same time, although there are practical limits to how much certainty either measurement can have.
These techniques are used in probably all high end imaging: PET, airport scanners, CAT, medical ultrasound imaging, ground penetrating radar, etc.
Some of the discussion in those papers covers practical concerns that affect only video.