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I have an image, I, sampled on a uniform grid:

$\ x_i = i*\Delta x, y_j = j*\Delta y, $

I need to resample this image to a grid rotated counterclockwise by an angle $\ \theta$ around $\ (x_0,y_0)$:

$\ u_i = i*\Delta u, v_j = j*\Delta v $

$\ x(u_i,v_j) = x_0 + cos(\theta)*u_i - v_j*sin(\theta)$

$\ y(u_i,v_j) = y_0 + sin(\theta)*u_i + v_j*cos(\theta)$

How do I best do this?

I understand that I can e.g. do bilinear interpolation to find I from the 4 (x,y) corners around each $\ (u_i,v_j)$.

However I am not free to choose $\ \Delta u $ and $\ \Delta v $ as I wish.

What is the Nyquist criterion for this rotated grid?

Am I right in assuming that it will be?:

$\ \Delta u = cos(\theta)*\Delta x + sin(\theta)*\Delta y$

$\ \Delta v = -sin(\theta)*\Delta x + cos(\theta)*\Delta y$

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Am I correct in thinking that this would be an equivalent operation to image rotation? – Jason R Oct 26 '12 at 12:03
Yes! Glad you asked about this. – Andy Oct 26 '12 at 12:29
up vote 5 down vote accepted

You should read about image transformations. Anyhow, the idea is quite simple:

  1. Compute the inverse transform $T(x,y)$.
  2. For each point $(x,y)$ on the re-sampled grid:

    • Calculate $T(x,y)$, and find the 4 closest points on the original grid.
    • Apply interpolation technique (For example, bi-linear) on the neighbors, and put the value in the re-sampled grid.

Some references:

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There's also a nice discussion of 2d interpolation in Numerical Recipes. – nibot Oct 27 '12 at 16:02
@ Andrey: thank you for your help. You gave me 1/2 of the solution. The other 1/2 consist of deciding the sampling in the rotated coordinate system. – Andy Oct 30 '12 at 12:51
@Andy, I don't understand. Please elaborate – Andrey Rubshtein Oct 30 '12 at 14:10
@Andrey: If I choose to large Delta u and Delta v this may cause aliasing. Choosing to small Delta u and Delta v on the other hand is not a problem. The upper limit on Delta u and Delta v is given by Nyquist. – Andy Oct 30 '12 at 14:43

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